The reproductive axis in men consists of five main elements:
- Outer-hypothalamous central nervous system
- Hypothalamus (produces the hormone GnRH which acts on the pituitary gland)
- Pituitary gland (produces hormones FSH and LH and prolactin, which are transported in the testes)
- Testes and
- Target cells
A couple is characterized as infertile when one is unable to conceive with free sex (i.e. without a condom) after a period of one year. This definition is a fact that has some “gaps” since many times the couple make love or long periods of time or even not trying in the days of ovulation.
Concerning the causes, 40% involve the male factor, 40% the female factor and the remaining 20% ”responsibilities” of both. As far the male factor is concerner, exams are carried by semen analysis, scrotal ultrasonography, hormonal tests and testicular biopsy where deemed necessary.
The causes of infertility can be divided into: congenital and acquired.
These, are also classified as:
- Idiopathic – in this case we can not determine the exact causative agent.
The causes of male infertility are classified into:
- Pre – testicular