Male infertility

The reproductive axis in men consists of five main elements:MALE INFERTILITY

  1. Outer-hypothalamous central nervous system
  2. Hypothalamus (produces the hormone GnRH which acts on the pituitary gland)
  3. Pituitary gland (produces hormones FSH and LH and prolactin, which are transported in the testes)
  4. Testes and
  5. Target cells

A couple is characterized as infertile when one is unable to conceive with free sex (i.e. without a condom) after a period of one year. This definition is a fact that has some “gaps” since many times the couple make love or long periods of time or even not trying in the days of ovulation.

Concerning the causes, 40% involve the male factor, 40% the female factor and the remaining 20% ”responsibilities” of both. As far the male factor is concerner, exams are carried by semen analysis, scrotal ultrasonography, hormonal tests and testicular biopsy where deemed necessary.

The causes of infertility can be divided into: congenital and acquired.
These, are also classified as:

  • Traumatic
  • Infectious
  • Neoplastic
  • Metabolic
  • Vascular
  • Iatrogenic
  • Idiopathic – in this case we can not determine the exact causative agent.

The causes of male infertility are classified into:

  • Pre – testicular
  • Testicular
  • Post-testicular

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